The verb in the Indicative Mood in one of the present tenses expresses a real condition and a real consequence

The verb in the Indicative Mood in one of the present tenses expresses a real condition and a real consequence: ^ If it rains, I shall stay at home. If you have finished, you can go out.
The verb in the Subjunctive Mood (the Past and Perfect Subjunctive) expresses different unreal conditions and consequences:

1) an unreal condition and consequence in the present or future is expressed by the verb in the Past Subjunctive:

If only we had a rope (but we haven’t) we could save him!

(Ср. рус.: Если бы у нас (сейчас) был канат!)

If only it rained tomorrow (but it may not), I could stay at home!

2) an unreal condition in the past is expressed by the verb in the Perfect Subjunctive:

If only we had had a rope (but we didn’t) we could have saved him. (Ср. рус.: Если бы у нас (тогда) был канат, мы бы его спасли)

2. Thus, we may speak about three major types of complex conditional sentences, or conditionals (Units 3-5):
1) Conditional I: with a real condition and a real consequence expressed by verbs in the Indicative Mood:

If he runs, he will catch the train.

2) Conditional II: with an unreal condition and an unreal consequence in the present or future expressed by verbs in the Past Subjunctive:

If he ran, he would catch the train.

3) Conditional III: with an unreal condition in the past and an unreal consequence expressed by verbs in the Perfect Subjunctive:

If he had run, he would have caught the train.

3. There is also a mixed type of conditional sentences with an unreal condition (Unit 6) where:

a) the condition refers to the past but the consequence refers to the present or future:

^ If you had taken your medicine yesterday, you would be well today.

b) the condition refers to no particular time and the conesquence refers to the past:

If he were not so absent-minded, he would not have mistaken you for your sister.

Unit 3 Type I Conditionals with Real Condition

^ Type I Conditionals talk about things which will possibly happen and consider their real consequences for the future.

If I see her, I shall be very glad. Если я увижу её, я буду очень рад.

Type I Conditionals may have the following structures:

1. The verb in the if-clause is in the Present Indefinite tense; the verb in the main clause is in the Future Indefinite:

if-clause main clause

if + Present Indefinite Future Indefinite (will + Infinitive)

If he works hard he will pass his exams

2. Other structures in the if-clause and in the main clause are possible, depending on what you want to say:

if- clause main clause

if + Present Indefinite modal verb

If you behave yourself, you can come.

if + Present Indefinite to be going to (future)

If you don't work, you're going to fail.

if + Present Indefinite Imperative

If you need anything, ask.

if + Present Continuous will + Infinitive

If we're leaving soon, I'll get on my coat.

if + Present Perfect will + Infinitive

If I've finished, I'll be able to come.

if + Present Perfect modal verb

If you've finished, you can go out

Imperative and/or + will

Eat less, and you will get slim.

3. Alternatives to ‘if’ in conditionals.

So/As long as you promise not to tell, you can come too.

You can drive this car provided/providing (that) you're fully insured.

Suppose/Supposing something goes wrong, what then?

Mario can't come with us, even if he is your best friend.

You can come in on condition that you don't stay long.

Unless Peter changes his attitude, he's going to find himself in trouble.

(Unless you go = If you don't go)

1. Put the verbs into the correct form.

  1. If I tell you a secret, you (promise) not to tell it to anyone else?

  2. If I lend you $10, when you (repay) me?

  3. If you will kindly sit down, I (make) enquires for you.

  4. The police (arrest) him if they catch him.

  5. Someone (steal) your car if you leave it unlocked.

  6. Unless he (sell) more he won’t get much commission.

  7. If the house (burn) down we can claim compensation.

  8. Unless you are more careful, you (have) an accident.

  9. If a driver brakes suddenly on a wet road he (skid).

  10. If you (not known) the meaning of a word you may use a dictionary.

  11. I’m not expecting any messages you say that I’ll be (ring) while I am out could you say that I’ll be back by 6.00?

  12. If Jack (refuse) to help we’ll have to manage without him.

  13. You can ask for a continental breakfast if you (not want) a full breakfast.

  14. If you (finish) with your dictionary I’d like to borrow it.

2. Put the verbs into the correct tenses.

  1. I’ll look for your notebook and if I (find) it I (give) you a ring.

  2. If you (like) I (get) you a job in this company.

  3. If you (smoke) in a non-smoking compartment the other passengers (object).

  4. I’ll wash the glasses in this nice hot water. – No, don’t. If you (put) them into very hot water they (crack).

  5. I expect it will freeze tonight. – If it (freeze) tonight the roads (be) slippery tomorrow.

  6. He’s only 16 but he wants to leave school at the end of the term. – If he (leave) now he (be) sorry afterwards.

  7. If he (win) he (get) $1,000, if he (come) in second he (get) $500.

  8. If you (give) me your phone number, sir, we (let) you know when it (arrive).

  9. How long ... it ... (take) if you (order) one for me?

  10. If it (not fit), madam, (bring) it back and we (change) it.

  11. If you (wait) a minute, sir, I (see) if the manager (be) free.

  12. I (get) any discount if I (pay) cash?

  13. If you (leave) it with me now, it (not take) more than a couple of days to repair.

  14. If you (not see) what you (want), sir, just (ask) one of the assistants.

3. Use the correct verb form instead of the Infinitive in brackets.

1) Mother (to be) very tired, if she (to go) home by train.

2) If the weather (to be) fine next weekend, we (to go) to the country.

3) I (to be) always at home if you (to ring) me up this summer.

4) I always (to help) you this year if you (to need) help.

5) Granny sometimes (not to hear) if little Eddie (to call) her.

6) If the days (to be) sunny in spring, we (to work) in the garden.

7) If Father (to leave) for the south, Mother (to start) preparations.

8) If my parents (not to work) on Saturday, we all (to go) skiing.

9) My father (to buy) a new house, if the bank manager (to lend) him the money.

4. Choose the correct expression in the following sentences.

Model: You can drop in and see us whenever/on condition you like.

  1. Until/When he arrives, everyone must stand.

  2. We’re not going to stop digging until/as soon as we find the ancient ruins.

  3. They’re going to check the building before/as long as the President arrives.

  4. Those flowers will be in bloom immediately/by the time spring comes.

  5. Please phone your dad the time/immediately.

  6. Supposing/In case you had a baby girl –what would you call her?

  7. Whether/If Chelsea wins the cups depends on Dennis being on good form.

  8. When/After the Smiths arrive, ask them to wait outside my office.

  9. As soon as/Before you hear the alarm, run for the exit.

  10. You’ll recover quickly once/provided you rest.

5. Complete the following sentences with the correct form of the word in brackets. Use will, going to, Present Simple and Present Perfect. There are may be two possibilities.

Model: As soon as I save/have saved (save) enough money, I’m going to go on a long holiday.

  1. I hope you’ll be awake when I ____(come) home.

  2. Come when you ___ (be) ready.

  3. We’d like to stay up until the film ___ (finish).

  4. All the tickets will have been sold by the time we ___ (get) there.

  5. Don’t open your eyes till I ___ (tell) you to.

  6. Whether she ___ (play) on Saturday depends on what the doctor says.

  7. I ___ (tell) you a secret on condition that you ___ (not tell) anyone else.

  8. I ___ (lend) you the book as long as you ___ it ___ (bring back) on Monday.

  9. We ___ (take) our swimming things in case we ___ (get) a chance to go swimming.

  10. We ___ (go) to bed as soon as the programme ___ (finish).

6. Rewrite each of the following to form a conditional sentence (Type I).

  1. The chauffeur may drive fast. Then they’ll catch their train.

  2. Perhaps both Steve and James will be successful. Then everyone will be happy.

  3. His mother wants to make him study law. Then he’ll be unhappy.

  4. Caroline wants to change her job. Then she’ll earn more money.

  5. Perhaps Steve won’t go to university. Then he’ll start work in a bank.

  6. He wants to go to university. Then he’ll study history or languages.

  7. Perhaps she won’t say anything. Then he’ll decide himself.

  8. James wants to become a tennis player. Then he’ll make a lot of money.

  9. We may have a puncture. Then we’ll telephone the nearest garage.

7. Some workers are demonstrating outside their factory. Use their demands to decide what they actually say to the managers and make conditional sentences (Type 1).

8. The managers of the factory are considering the worker’s demands. Complete the sentences by choosing suitable linking word from the box below.

provided that, supposing, unless, in case, as long as, so long as

  1. We’ll pay them more money ___ they work harder.

  2. We won’t give them longer holidays ___ they promise to be more productive.

  3. We won’t shorten their lunch-break ___ they agree to start earlier.

  4. We’ll have to improve safety standards ___ someone has an accident.

  5. We’ll consider providing better working conditions ___ we have enough money.

  6. ___ we introduce a shorter working week, how will we make a profit?

  7. We’ll include worker representatives in the Board of Directors ___ they’re trained to manage.

  8. We’ll let some of full-time workers stay with us ___ they agree to be lower-paid.

9. Complete the following sentences.

  1. You’ll soon be in trouble if ... .

  2. If you help me a bit, ... .

  3. Dad, if you carry on like this, I ... .

  4. If you drive so fast, we ... .

  5. The house will soon be very dirty, if ... .

  6. If they get a new manager, he ... .

  7. The team won’t make more money unless ... .

  8. You won’t be seasick if ... .

  9. Why don’t you visit Mom if ... .

  10. More people won’t visit their matches unless ... .

  11. What will happen if ... ?

  12. Look up the answer in the key only if ... .

  13. ... only if you promise not to tell anyone else.

  14. If the worst should come to the worst ... .

  15. Give me time and ... .

  16. We’ll just manage to catch the train if ... .

  17. If I see him again I ... .

  18. What will he say if ... ?

10. Think of a suitable way to complete the second half of the dialogue.

Model: – Do you think we’ll still catch the train?

– Well, we won’t unless we hurry.

  1. – Do you think Patrick has much chance to pass the summer session?

– Well, we won’t unless .... .

  1. – I hear you’re planning to go camping next weekend.

– We hope to, provide that ,... .

  1. – You don’t need to take a map, do you?

– But supposing ... ?

  1. – Do you think I should send it registered post?

– It might be a good idea, just in case .... .

  1. – Can I borrow your car?

– Yes, so long as ... .

  1. – So, you’re thinking of buying that second-hand car?

– Well, as long as ... .

  1. – Are you going to ask Nick to help you?

– Well, unless ... .

  1. – Could you lend me some money, Pete, to repair my motorbike?

– I will, so long as ... .

  1. – Jane, tell Mr. Lewis I’ll see him right away.

– I do, in case ... .

  1. – Oh, dear, tell me what’s happened to Sue?

– O.K. I’ll tell you the whole truth so long as ... .

11. Translate into English:

  1. Я пошлю ему телеграмму, если он завтра не приедет.

  2. Как только я получу водительское удостоверение, я сразу же куплю машину.

  3. При условии, что ты будешь есть меньше, ты не будешь такой полной.

  4. Мы посидим в баре, пока она ходит по магазинам.

  5. Я вернусь не позднее 6 часов, если меня не задержат в университете.

  6. Он не придёт, если его жене не станет лучше.

  7. В случае, если пойдёт дождь, я останусь дома.

  8. Когда бы вы не пришли ко мне, я всегда буду рад вас видеть.

  9. Если Анна посмотрит эту передачу по телевидению, то она будет знать о чём идёт речь.

  10. Как только они завершат работу над докладом, они вернутся к этой проблеме.

  11. Я загляну позже, если будут какие-нибудь новости.

  12. Если ты не будешь вести машину осторожно, ты попадёшь в аварию.

  13. Собака залает, если ты постучишь в дверь.

  14. Если я закончу все дела на этой неделе, я уеду в заграничное путешествие.

  15. Мы поедем отдыхать при условии, что ты сдашь экзамен по английскому языку,

Unit 4 Type II ConditionalS

^ 1. Type II Conditionals usually talk about imaginary situations referring to the present or future in the if-clause and speculate about their imaginary consequences in the main clause.

if-clause main clause

If + Subjunctive Past would + Infinitive

If it rained tomorrow he would stay at home

Though past tenses are used, the reference is not to the past time but to the present or future.

Subjunctive Past (see Unit 2 in this chapter) is used in if-clause and the group ‘modal verb (most often would or should) + Infinitive’ forms a compound verbal predicate in the main clause:

If I saw her, I would be very glad.

Если бы я увидела её, я была бы очень рада.

If it were not for your help, I should not be able to do it.

Если бы не ваша помощь, я бы не смог это сделать.

In spoken English would is often shortened to ‘d: If you stopped smoking, you’d feel better.

Other modals can replace 'would' in Type II Conditionals when we feel the imaginary consequences are less likely, or when we are referring to ability, possibility, etc.:

condition to be satisfied likely outcome

If I were here, he could help us (ability).

If he were here he might help us (possibility).

If he failed, he ought to/should try again (duty).

^ 2. Type II Conditionals are used:

1) When the supposition is contrary to the fact:

If I knew her address, I would give it to you (but I don't know it).

If I were taller, I would become a policeman (but I am not).

2) When we don't expect the action in the if-clause to take place:

If a burglar came into my room, I should throw something at him (but I don't expect a burglar to come in).

If he ran all the way, he would get there in time (but I don't suppose he will run all the way).

3) To give advice or to refer to somebody else:

If I were Jane/in Jane's position, I'd walk out on him.

NOTE: If I were

'Were' should be used in place of 'was' after If I/she/he/it.

If I were better qualified, I would apply for the job.

If I were you, I would go there by bus.

E x e r c i s e s

1. Put the verb into the correct form.

Model: If I found $100 in the street, I would keep (keep) it.

  1. I’m sure Tom will lend you some money. I would be very surprised if he ___ (refuse).

  2. Many people would be out of work if that factory ___ (close) down.

  3. If she sold her car, she ___ (not/get) much money for it.

  4. They’re expecting us. They would be disappointed if we ___ (not/come).

  5. Would George be angry if I ___ (take) his bicycle without asking.

  6. Ann gave me this ring. She___ (be) terribly upset if I lost it.

  7. If someone ___ (walk) in here with a gun, I’d be very frightened.

  8. What would happen if you ___ (not/go) to work tomorrow.

  9. I’d climb over the wall if there ___ (not be) so much broken glass on top of it.

  10. I ___ (keep) a dog if I could afford it.

  11. The whole machine would fall to pieces if you ___ (remove) that screw.

  12. If you ___ (change) your job would it affect your pension?

  13. If they ___ (ban) the sale of alcohol at football match there might be less violence.

  14. If you slept under a mosquito net you ___ (not be) bitten so often.

  15. If we ___ (reduce) taxes, people would have more money.

  16. Would you mind if I ___ (not/give) you the money I owe you today?

2. Put the verb in brackets into the correct tense form.

  1. If you drove more carefully, you (not have) so many accidents.

  2. If he (get up) earlier, he would get to work on time.

  3. If we (have) more time, I could tell you more about it.

  4. His car would be a lot safer if he (buy) some new tyres.

  5. The children would be better swimmers if they (go) swimming more frequently.

  6. I wouldn’t mind having children if we (live) in the country.

  7. If I (be) you, I wouldn’t worry about going to university.

  8. If I (have) any money, I’d give you some.

  9. Your parents (be) a lot happier if you phoned them more often.

  10. Where would you like to live if you (not live) in Paris?

  11. What would you do if you suddenly (win) half a million pounds?

  12. Would you mind if I (not give) you the money I owe you today?

  13. If I had to go to hospital, I (not go) to this one.

  14. If you (sell) more products, you would earn more money.

3. Match these parts to make conditional sentences.

  1. If I had their address...

a) it would cost over $650.

  1. If you saw her now ...

b) you might earn a bit more money.

  1. If you took more exercise ...

c) we could go for a swim.

  1. If you got a new job ...

d) I could probably stay with Mahomet.

  1. If you asked Heather ...

e) she must have been out at work.

  1. If I travelled first class ...

f) she would probably give you a lift.

  1. If it were a little warmer ...

g) she would give you a certificate.

  1. If she didn’t answer the phone ...

h) I might lose a bit of weight.

  1. If I stopped off in Ankara....

i) I could write and ask them.

  1. If you went to the doctor ...

j) you would hardly recognize her.

4. What would they do? Put the verbs in the correct tense and form:


If Nick got more pocket money, he would waste (waste) it all on stupid things.


That isn’t true. If I had more money, I (1) ___ (spend) it on a leather jacket.


If I (2) ___ (win) a lottery, I would buy a CD-player.


I (3) ___ (not buy) a CD-player, if I were you. They are too much expensive.


If I had more money, I (4) ___ (save) it for a trip.


If I (5) ___ (have) a lot of money, I (6) ___ (buy) a motorbike.


I (7) ___ (not buy) a motorbike if I (8) ___ (be) you. They are too dangerous.


If we (9) ___ (not/get) so much homework, I (10) ___ (deliver) newspapers every morning.


What has homework got to do with a morning paper-round?


Well, you see. Nick does his homework between getting up and eating breakfast.

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